International chess rules pdf

 

    Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of a. do not conflict in any way with the official FIDE Laws of Chess, and. Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of judgement and thus FIDE appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this view. The following are the standard rules of chess as applied in World. Championship This set of rules was composed by International Arbiter Eric. Schiller, with the.

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    International Chess Rules Pdf

    The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard. 4. Article 3: D. Rules for play With blind and visually disabled players. Guidelines. Evolution of chess rules. ziechowhasodi.mlnt of the pieces. ziechowhasodi.ml chessboard. ziechowhasodi.mll moves. ziechowhasodi.mls of chessmen. Promoted Pawn. ziechowhasodi.mlements of pieces. Basic chess rules. Setting up the board: The board should be set up with the white square in the nearest row on the right, “white on the right”. If this isn't done the.

    Download Step Basic Strategy Chess is an incredibly complex strategic game, and it is impossible to go into all of the possible tactics one could use to win. However, I wanted to leave the new player with a few hints that will hopefully aid in victory. Piece Value: Obviously you want to protect your pieces from capture, but it helps to know which pieces are the strongest so you can decide who to save if you must choose between two. Pawns become more valuable as they near promotion. Pawn Promotion: Although a pawn can be promoted to a variety of pieces, the strongest choice is almost always to promote to queen. Board Control: When building defenses, remember to look at the board and gauge how strong you are in certain areas of the board. Try an keep power distributed fairly evenly, and bring pieces over to add strength if you see an attack coming. When attacking, it's a bad idea to let any of your pieces become cut off from your main force. I find it helpful to have a support piece in mind when making an attack. Using pieces in tandem almost always yields a better result than using one piece alone. Add Tip.

    A common misconception is that pawns may only be exchanged for a piece that has been captured. That is NOT true. A pawn is usually promoted to a queen. Only pawns may be promoted.

    If a pawn moves out two squares on its first move, and by doing so lands to the side of an opponent's pawn effectively jumping past the other pawn's ability to capture it , that other pawn has the option of capturing the first pawn as it passes by.

    This special move must be done immediately after the first pawn has moved past, otherwise the option to capture it is no longer available.

    Click through the example below to better understand this odd, but important rule. How to Castle in Chess One other special chess rule is called castling. This move allows you to do two important things all in one move: get your king to safety hopefully , and get your rook out of the corner and into the game.

    On a player's turn he may move his king two squares over to one side and then move the rook from that side's corner to right next to the king on the opposite side. See the example below. However, in order to castle, the following conditions must be met: it must be that king's very first move it must be that rook's very first move there cannot be any pieces between the king and rook to move the king may not be in check or pass through check Notice that when you castle one direction the king is closer to the side of the board.

    That is called castling "kingside". Castling to the other side, through where the queen sat, is called castling "queenside". Regardless of which side, the king always moves only two squares when castling. Step 4. Therefore, players generally decide who will get to be white by chance or luck such as flipping a coin or having one player guess the color of the hidden pawn in the other player's hand. White then makes a move, followed by black, then white again, then black and so on until the end of the game.

    Being able to move first is a tiny advantage which gives the white player an opportunity to attack right away. Step 5. Review the Rules of How to Win a Game of Chess There are several ways to end a game of chess: by checkmate, with a draw, by resignation, by forfeit on time How to Checkmate in Chess The purpose of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king. This happens when the king is put into check and cannot get out of check.

    There are only three ways a king can get out of check: move out of the way though he cannot castle! If a king cannot escape checkmate then the game is over. Customarily the king is not captured or removed from the board, the game is simply declared over.

    The checkmate can happen in early stages in the game if one of the players does not act carefully. Below, you will find an example of the Fools mate , a checkmate that happens in just 2 moves. How to Draw a Chess Game Occasionally chess games do not end with a winner, but with a draw.

    Guide to Chess

    There are 5 reasons why a chess game may end in a draw: The position reaches a stalemate where it is one player's turn to move, but his king is NOT in check and yet he does not have another legal move: With the move Qc7, black is not threatened and can't move. The game is declared draw by stalemate. The players may simply agree to a draw and stop playing There are not enough pieces on the board to force a checkmate example: a king and a bishop vs.

    Study Basic Chess Strategies There are four simple things that every chess player should know: Protect your King Get your king to the corner of the board where he is usually safer. Don't put off castling. You should usually castle as quickly as possible. Remember, it doesn't matter how close you are to checkmating your opponent if your own king is checkmated first! Don't Give Pieces Away Don't carelessly lose your pieces!

    Each piece is valuable and you can't win a game without pieces to checkmate. There is an easy system that most players use to keep track of the relative value of each chess piece.

    How much are the chess pieces worth? A pawn is worth 1 A knight is worth 3 A bishop is worth 3 A rook is worth 5 A queen is worth 9 The king is infinitely valuable At the end of the game these points don't mean anything — it is simply a system you can use to make decisions while playing, helping you know when to capture, exchange, or make other moves.

    Control the Center of the Chessboard You should try and control the center of the board with your pieces and pawns. If you control the center, you will have more room to move your pieces and will make it harder for your opponent to find good squares for his pieces.

    In the example above white makes good moves to control the center while black plays bad moves. Use All of your Chess Pieces In the example above white got all of his pieces in the game!

    Your pieces don't do any good when they are sitting back on the first row. Try and develop all of your pieces so that you have more to use when you attack the king. Using one or two pieces to attack will not work against any decent opponent. Practice by Playing Lots of Games The most important thing you can do to get better at chess is to play lots of chess!

    It doesn't matter if you play at home with friends or family, or play online, you have to play the game a lot to improve. These days it's easy to find a game of chess online! How to Play Chess Variants While most people play standard chess rules, some people like to play chess with changes to the rules.

    These are called "chess variants". Each variant has its own rules: Chess In Chess Fischer Random , the initial position of the pieces is set at random. Pawns keep their normal initial position but the rest of the pieces are arranged randomly. King Of The Hill: In this format, the goal is to get your king to the center of the board or "top of the hill.

    When one player captures a piece from the opponent, this piece will become available to his or her teammate. For example: If I play as White and my teammate, who is Black, takes a white knight from her opponent, in my turn I will have a knight that I can put on any free square on my board. I can do so in any of my future turns. Crazyhouse: This is a very exciting format, since it allows you to use the pieces you take from your opponent. That is, if I play as White and I take a black pawn from my opponent, that pawn will turn into a white pawn that I can put on the board as part of my army.

    Enjoy chess with these amazing chess variants. Castling is done just like in standard chess, with the King and Rook landing on their normal castled squares g1 and f1, or c1 and d1. These rules do not necessarily apply to play at home or online, but you may want to practice with them anyway. Touch-move - If a player touches one of their own pieces they must move that piece as long as it is a legal move.

    If a player touches an opponent's piece, they must capture that piece. Clocks and Timers - Most tournaments use timers to regulate the time spent on each game, not on each move.

    Each player gets the same amount of time to use for their entire game and can decide how to spend that time. Once a player makes a move they then touch a button or hit a lever to start the opponent's clock. If a player runs out of time and the opponent calls the time, then the player who ran out of time loses the game unless the opponent does not have enough pieces to checkmate, in which case it is a draw. That is why we put at your disposal these frequent questions that usually occur in those people who are beginning to enter the world of chess.

    We hope they're useful to you! How do I get better at chess? If the first rule of the opening is to get your pieces out and aimed at the center of the board, then the second rule is to attend to the safety of your King by castling.

    Usually the King castles to the Kingside, and is protected by a barrier of pawns along the second rank. The King is safe, both rooks are in the game, and the Knights and Bishops are placed in the center of the board.

    A good hint is that you have played the opening well when your rooks are talking to each other clearly, i. Keeping the King safe is an important part of good opening play. Advancing the kingside pawns early in the game can be disastrous. If not, using Gambit or a normal chessboard, set up the position after the moves 1.

    Black can take advantage of the weakened kingside by delivering checkmate in a single move: This is a direct consequence of the weak opening moves chosen by White. A good rule of thumb is to bring the minor pieces Knights and Bishops into the game, generally Knights, then Bishops, followed by castling, and then the major pieces: rooks and Queen.

    Go back to the previous diagram. But what is the very best first move? For hundreds of years chessplayers have been working to find the most effective moves with which to open a game. For the last century or so, there has been so much analysis produced that one former World Champion, the great Capablanca, held the opinion that the game was in its death throes, and that the rules would have to be changed in order to erase this great body of wisdom and allow originality to regain its rightful place in the opening stages of the game.

    Fortunately, Capablanca was wrong, and despite the thousands of books published on the openings, there is still plenty of scope for original thought.

    Yet familiarity with opening strategies and tactics is quite helpful, whether playing man or machine. Most chess programs, including Gambit, have large amounts of opening knowledge built into the program. They will usually choose the best paths in the opening. You should acquire similar knowledge.

    By studying some of the most common openings, one can avoid making the same mistakes that others have made in the past. By understanding the important strategic concepts of the opening, it is easier to find the appropriate plan in the middlegame.

    It is very important to keep in mind that the goals of the opening differ depending on whether you are playing White or Black. As White, you start off with a tiny advantage, and your goal is to maintain or increase that advantage.

    When such a balance is achieved, for example when Gambit evaluates the position as near zero, a state known as equality arises. That is your first goal: equality. Then you can try to build an advantageous position. When starting out in chess, it is better to employ openings which have been thoroughly tested in the tournament arena and which are generally considered to be effective.

    There are many acceptable opening strategies. In the Tutorials included with Gambit you will find descriptions of most of them. You should play through all of them before choosing your own opening repertoire. For a beginner, a simple rule of thumb for playing with the Black pieces is to mirror the first move your opponent makes, but not to mirror further moves.

    So answer 1. Now that your pieces are developed Once you have emerged from the opening, or have reached a point where most of your pieces are developed and you no longer remember what moves are supposed to be played next, you need to switch to the principles of middlegame play. There are a few basic things you can do which will help avoid disaster early in the game.

    Much of this wisdom comes straight from some of the greatest players of all time.

    Watch your pieces! Beginners often lose games because they do not notice that their pieces are being attacked. Wrapped up in their own plans, they fail to keep in mind that the opponent is up to something, too. Only when playing at a very low level, or when Gambit has a reduced setting for the attention factor does the computer make the sort of terrible mistakes that typify human play.

    Keep in mind the relative values of the pieces. Almost every manual on the game of chess will include some sort of numerical value for each of the six chess pieces. Computer programs assign such values too. In an endgame, three pawns are often worth more than a Knight or Bishop. Sometimes a single Pawn is more valuable than a Rook! There is nothing that Black can do about it, despite the fact that his Rook is theoretically more than five times the value of a Pawn.

    A Rook is worth five pawns. A Queen is worth ten pawns. A Bishop is worth a little more than a Knight. Masters often employ these for subtle reasons, but beginners should not try to use this technique, because most of the time the enemy Rook will be worth much more than the Knight or Bishop in the endgame. Always have a purpose for your moves Chess is a game of strategy and tactics. You need to have a reason for each move.

    In most cases, even a bad plan is better than no plan at all. In later chapters you will find advice on how to create a plan. Of course the best way of learning how to play the middlegame is to observe great players at work. You can do this by working through the Tutorials and Illustrative Games in Gambit.

    Before doing that, however, you need to know a little bit about the recording of chess games. Chess games are recorded using a system of notation that is explained in the User Manual. In addition to the moves, and commentary, sometimes using the symbols discussed above, each game usually contains additional information. At the start of the game, the players of the White and Black pieces are identified, usually with a hyphen between them. So a game between Gary Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov, with Gary playing White, has the heading: Kasparov P Karpov If the players are less well known, initials or full first names are supplied.

    This is also the case where there are several well-known players who share the same last name. Sometimes additional information, such as the countries or clubs represented by the players and ratings are included. In the case of a match, the number of the match game is included, e. The game header can also contain the name of an opening, or, in professional journals, a special code representing the opening.

    Guide to Chess - PDF Free Download

    There are many variations on this format, but the information contained is generally the same. When chessplayers talk to each other they are not quite as anti-social as is sometimes suggested! Notice that the elements are not separated by other words or pauses. Now you can at least talk like a Grandmaster! In the end When most of the pieces have left the board, leaving just the kings, some pawns, and a few other pieces, we are in the stage known as the endgame. The opening is like a ballet, with pieces moving like choreographed dancers on a stage configuration.

    The middlegame is like a symphony, with massive forces tossing material back and forth. But the endgame is the chamber music of chess, a refined art whose appreciation comes slowly for some, not at all for others. But if you want to be a good chessplayer, you must master the endgame.

    Even in the opening stages of a game, a Grandmaster is thinking about the possible endgames that might arise. By evaluating these possibilities, the Grandmaster can decide which pieces should be traded off, and which should be preserved. If you have a material advantage, then the fewer the pieces, the easier it is to win. There are exceptions of course, but this advice will serve you well in most cases.

    Two other things should be kept in mind. Pieces should be as mobile as possible. The more squares they can reach, the more powerful they are. The configuration of the pawns is also critical. If the pawns are aligned in strong chains, it is easier to let the pieces work.

    The Black forces are not so well placed, and the Pawn at a5 can only be defended by the Knight, which would have to go to the awkward square b7. This means that the White pieces are free to roam the board, and, since the Pawn at c2 cannot be easily attacked, even the White King can take part in the game.

    The King assumes its true majestic role in the endgame. In the opening and middlegame it must remain secured behind a barricade of pawns for safety. But in the endgame it can join the troops in battle. Here chess mirrors ancient warfare well. If the King comes charging into the battle early on, he is likely to have his head lopped off.

    We can see the importance of this in the most basic of endgames where there is just one Pawn on the board. Summing up In general, a player achieves victory by first developing a number of positional advantages, such as an advantage in space and control of key parts of the board, especially the four squares in the center. The enemy forces are then cramped, and a major attack can be launched at an opportune moment. An alternative method is to obtain the same advantages but instead of launching an attack, the player converts his advantage from a positional one to one of material.

    This often occurs because the opponent is forced to yield material in order to avoid checkmate. This advantage is then used in an attack on the enemy King.

    Garry Kasparov characteristically accepts thirteen as his lucky number. Yet if anything is incontestable about his life, it is that luck has counted for virtually nothing in his success, and that a voracious appetite for work and strength of will against impossible odds have meant everything.

    In each of his five matches for the World Championship — counting the aborted marathon of 48 games against Karpov — Kasparov has had his back to the wall in varying degrees. In that notorious first match, he lost four games in the first nine, then after a run of an unprecedented seventeen draws lost the fifth game.

    The champion, Karpov, needed only one more win to retain his title. But now the year-old challenger was down ! In the third match between them, in Seville, Karpov had taken a one point lead before the twenty-fourth and final game, needing only a draw to regain the championship.

    These crises were further intensified by political chess intrigue within the Soviet hierarchy and its cohorts in FIDE. Baku is, along with Tashkent, a major southernmost city of the former Soviet republics.

    Its position on the Caspian Sea above Iran has established it as a route of commerce throughout history, and now as the capital of the independent republic of Azerbaijan. Petersburg Leningrad.

    Garik — or Garry, as he soon was called — plotted the voyages of ancient explorers across the globe with his father. By four he was reading the newspaper: accounts of impending war in the Middle East, tales of world figures. His mother had been a strong chessplayer since her youth, his father less so — but they both liked to look at the chess problem that appeared in their daily newspaper each evening. Not all champions or grandmasters have been prodigies; Botvinnik learned the game at thirteen, Pillsbury was sixteen, and Bogoljubov was in his twenties.

    With such parents as Garry had, however, it was a reasonable conclusion that chess would come to the fore early. The rise was rapid — impressive considering the fierceness of competition in this era of Mikhail Tal and Boris Spassky. The Botvinnik School was founded in and had Anatoly Karpov among its illustrious first students.

    Though it ceased operations for a time, it was again funded in , limiting its enrollment to 20 boys or girls. Petersburg before the war. Hence it is a mistake to think that chess does not reflect objective reality. An inescapable corollary of this frame of mind is the value of the game apart from politics and personal aggrandizement.

    From this realization on, Kasparov was on a collision course with an entirely different trend in chess — the rise of the bureaucrats. Garry was dumbfounded to find himself facing the ex-World Champion Mikhail Tal in personal combat.

    Max Euwe — to mention only the former world champions of the first half of the century — Tal was something special to an aspiring master. Though he finished only seventh, he was the youngest competitor, inspiring Leonard Barden to predict in the Guardiall that the successor to newly crowned World Champion Anatoly Karpov would some day be this young man. This time, however, he was not as impressionable, and on the Black side of a Sicilian he had seized the initiative against the Champion when he went astray in a complex combination.

    Garry infiltrated the position, which Lev barely managed to draw after Qd3 Taking the Knight would have led to the problem-like finish Qxd5 Re7, with mate in a few moves. He began with subdued expectations, but gradually edged up on his older competitors.

    All of a sudden, as the last round began, he was tied for first place. Now began one of those nightmares of back-to-the-wall pressure that was to become a Kasparov trademark. As his chief competitor lost early, the winner of that game unexpectedly moved a half-point ahead of Garry. When he adjourned in a seemingly hopeless position his rival was already celebrating his victory. Yet midnight oil offered a glimmer of hope.

    Against all odds, Garry managed to draw. He would go to Lille, France later that year as the youngest player ever to represent the Soviet Union abroad. He could only tie for third, with five other players. He was especially disappointed in failing against the eventual leaders. Yet he rebounded in Riga at his second Soviet Junior, winning with ease with such equally talented future grandmasters as Chernin and Yusupov in the lists.

    No other player had won two Soviet junior championships. The following year, , found Garry on the cusp of stardom. At the national championships in Tiblisi he managed an even score even though he missed several opportunities. The winner of the tournament, Tal, happened to meet Garry in a lightning match after the event — and the result was a tie! There are only two other players I could name who gave such successful performances at the age of fifteen in major tournaments: Fischer and Spassky.

    Before the next championship Garry was invited to a grandmaster tournament in Yugoslavia, where he outdistanced the field handily. It was a sensation: he had achieved the international master rank and the grandmaster norm in one jump.

    Wade echoed Tal in recalling Spassky at Bucharest in and Fischer at Zurich in — both sixteen years old at the time.

    Rules of chess

    This is understandable; so intense is modern chess competition that a real talent can demonstrate maturity at an early age. How early is irrelevant. What Kasparov recognized was that he had a style by this time. Each one of us is capable of making his own discovery, so long as he is dedicated and persistent.

    At the Soviet championship in Minsk, , he varied his style from the swashbuckling ways expected of him, so much so that the veteran Salo Flohr compared his first and second round games with the style of Petrosian. Finally he was expected to win, with his experience and top rating.

    In , in a dramatic turn of events, Kasparov split with FIDE, refusing to recognize their authority. As Kasparov relates in Unlimited Challenge, the plot against him came to his realization slowly and still mystifies him as World Champion. It is as if the chess world is too lazy to look at the facts and too cynical to try to address blatant abuses of the reigning hierarchy. If Kasparov had made one of several possible missteps along the way to his championship, and his defenses of it, he would have had even less sympathy.

    He would have been called a poor loser. Clearly the Soviet chess leadership supported its World Champion, Karpov. Just as clearly, Kasparov was considered by that leadership to be an outsider, and was not given the opportunities to make his mark as a championship candidate. Finally, in , he began to assert himself in choosing tournaments that would establish his role as a challenger. Kasparov was eighteen years old when he journeyed to Tilburg, Holland, to compete in one of the most exclusive of grandmaster events.

    The Dutch have always cherished the royal game; the late champion Dr. Max Euwe was only the most distinguished of many generations of players from this region. Thus it was symbolic that at Tilburg, , as Kasparov tried to press his claim to being on the track of the world championship, he was to be disappointed.

    Garry finished with an equal score, missing obvious chances against Spassky, Petrosian, and Portisch. Though other pieces now enter the scene, this Bishop will strike the final blow in the underbelly of the King position. Rd4 Nd6 Rg4 Nf7 Ke8 Bg7 Resigns, as h7 follows. The Leningrad Grandmaster has committed the unpardonable sin of defecting, and was in a tug of war with his former country over the freedom of his wife to join him.

    It was a sad commentary on the blindness of the bureaucrats that their boycott of Korchnoi was the laughing stock of the rest of the world. Again it was a last-round, back-againstthe-wall stand. He had lost earlier to Psakhis, who now was ahead of Kasparov by a half point. So Garry shared the gold medal. In this event Kasparov demonstrated, in his game against Dorfman, what would become a trademark: the deeply prepared variation, ending in fireworks.

    In the Botvinnik variation against the Slav Defense, Kasparov defied analysis, going on at the tournament, in which White was supposedly lost after a speculative Knight sacrifice. After all-night study, he soon reached a position after 30 moves that was crucial.

    With 36 Rcl! After Dorfman was lost and soon resigned. Even after this rise to the Soviet championship, Kasparov was told openly that the Sports Committee did not want to see a match with Karpov.

    In late he was invited to three world-class tournaments that would have honed his skills for the next qualifying cycle. Kasparov was turned down by the Committee for all three — and shunted to a minor event.

    The threat had reached a crisis stage. To his surprise, he was allowed to enter the major tournament of Bugojno. He would never know whether it was another ploy or an honest admission of what was right.

    In either case, he now had a chance to meet the best in the world. It was a typically Yugoslav grand slam: two former World Champions, Spassky and Petrosian; the perennial Polugaevsky; the strong national contingent of Gligoric, Ljubojevic, Ivanovic, and Ivkov; and the best, perhaps, of the rest of the world in Huebner, Larsen, Timman, and Kavalek.

    It was at Bugojno, , that Kasparov seemed to come of age in self-confidence. He was prouder of that game than of many previous risky and flamboyant combinational triumphs. Botvinnik said, after this game, that he had to revise his timetable: Kasparov might be able to challenge Karpov now rather than in the next championship cycle.

    Kasparov won six, drew seven, and lost none, finishing a point and a half ahead of the field. One tends to forget his age and broader ambitions: he was majoring in English at an Institute in Baku. Like other grandmasters before him, Kasparov was blessed with a prodigious memory. In his autobiography, he mentions the phenomenal displays of Harry Nelson Pillsbury and some anecdotes about Bobby Fischer.

    Kasparov speculates that such feats may also injure the mind. Nevertheless, his depth of opening research necessarily depends not only on assiduous study but also on uncanny retentiveness. After some shaky moments against Andersson and Tal, Kasparov began playing with supreme confidence in the Moscow Interzonal. This time with seven wins, six draws, and no losses, he again finished a point and a half ahead of the field. Then it was on to the 25th Olympiad at Lucerne, Switzerland.

    Here he led the Soviet team, with Karpov, of course, at first board, to a resounding victory. Again, he had not lost a game. He finished the year unbeaten in tournament or team play.

    At the conclusion of the Olympiad, the first order of business was to draw the pairings for the Candidates matches. Eight players were to play four matches, followed by two matches, and then the final elimination to select the next challenger against Karpov.

    All of this, of course, was to be by a chance drawing. But when the results were announced, there was general pandemonium.

    The first four turned out to be the strongest-rated; Kasparov, now rated highest at , was paired against Belyavsky, and he then had to play either Korchnoi or Portisch. Though the drawing may have been fair, the players objected to not being present.

    Such was the contempt of some of the contestants that Portisch walked out when he saw the pairings. Further mischief followed. When Kasparov won from Belyavsky without trouble, and Korchnoi from Portisch, the next match was set for Pasadena. For reasons too complex to go into, this venue turned out to be impossible. Finally, thanks to patient organizers in Yugoslavia and England, the semi-finals were scheduled for London in Former World Champion Smyslov surprised everyone by winning both his matches in the twilight of his career.

    Kasparov and Korchnoi armwrestled for several games before Garry broke through to win the first game in a seesaw battle. This type of ending is full of hidden dangers due to the unusual King positions.

    Korchnoi played the plausible 63 d6, when 63 Rdl! The difference is that the Black King gains a move as e5 is unguarded in the variation By playing 63 Rdl first, Black has nothing better than Ke4 65 d5 Ke5, and Black is a critical move behind.

    Korchnoi said after the match that this game convinced him Kasparov was more than a combinational prodigy. The final match with Smyslov, in Vilnius, Lithuania in , was onesided. Kasparov reached the necessary four wins without a loss; he had lost just one each to Belyavsky and Korchnoi.

    Garry was certain of his destination, at the ripe age of The La Bourdonnais-McDonnell match was also devoid of politics, intimidation, and organizers who claimed to be more important than the players. In short, the World Championship match will go down in history as one of the great aberrations in all of sports. It all began innocently enough: the Champion would be the first player to win six games, with draws not counting.

    Kasparov was told to sign an agreement beforehand allowing a return match in two years in the event that he won — thus changing the previous threeyear cycle. He began to see clouds on the horizon.

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